2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
Basis of Presentation – The condensed consolidated financial statements include, as applicable, the accounts of CV Sciences, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries Plus CBD, LLC and CANNAVEST Acquisition, LLC; and the accounts of a 70% interest in CannaVest Europe, GmbH (collectively, as applicable, the “Company”). All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The Company commenced commercial operations for its current business model on January 29, 2013. On January 20, 2017, the Company filed for dissolution of CannaVest Europe, GmbH, an entity that, prior to dissolution, the Company had a 70% interest in, with the District Court, Dusseldorf Germany, effective December 31, 2016. On April 27, 2018, the Company filed a Certificate of Cancellation for its wholly-owned subsidiary, CANNAVEST Acquisition, LLC, with the Secretary of State of Delaware, effective as of April 27, 2018. Neither CANNAVest Acquisition, LLC nor CannaVest Europe, GmbH had any material assets or liabilities at the time of their respective dissolutions.
The unaudited condensed consolidated interim financial statements have been prepared by the Company pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC. The information furnished herein reflects all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals and adjustments) which are, in the opinion of management, necessary to fairly present the operating results for the respective periods and ensure that the financial statements are not misleading. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally present in annual financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) have been omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and notes for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the SEC on the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on March 29, 2018. The results for the interim periods ended September 30, 2018, are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year ending December 31, 2018.
Liquidity – For the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, the Company had net income (losses) of $3,294,973 and ($589,983), respectively. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, the Company had net income (losses) of $7,100,217 and ($5,366,946), respectively. In addition, for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, the Company had positive cash flows from operations of $9,925,819 and $647,216, respectively. Management believes the Company has the funds necessary to continue its consumer product and specialty pharmaceutical business segments and meet its other obligations over the next year solely from current revenues and cash flow for the next 12-month period through November 6, 2019.
Derivative Financial Instruments – Derivative financial instruments are initially recognized at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and subsequently remeasured at fair value on a quarter-end reporting basis. Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments are recognized as a gain or loss in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets – The Company evaluates the carrying value of goodwill and intangible assets annually during the fourth quarter in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 350, Intangibles Goodwill and Other and between annual evaluations if events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying amount. Such circumstances could include, but are not limited to (1) a significant adverse change in legal factors or in business climate, (2) unanticipated competition, or (3) an adverse action or assessment by a regulator. When evaluating whether goodwill is impaired, the Company compares the fair value of the reporting unit to which the goodwill is assigned to the reporting unit’s carrying amount, including goodwill. The fair value of the reporting unit is estimated using a combination of the income, or discounted cash flows, approach and the market approach, which utilizes comparable companies’ data. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, then the amount of the impairment loss must be measured. The impairment loss would be calculated by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill to its carrying amount. In calculating the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill, the fair value of the reporting unit is allocated to all of the other assets and liabilities of that unit based on their fair values. The excess of the fair value of a reporting unit over the amount assigned to its other assets and liabilities is the implied fair value of goodwill.
We make critical assumptions and estimates in completing impairment assessments of goodwill and other intangible assets. Our cash flow projections look several years into the future and include assumptions on variables such as future sales and operating margin growth rates, economic conditions, market competition, inflation and discount rates.
We classify intangible assets into three categories: (1) intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization; (2) intangible assets with indefinite lives not subject to amortization; and (3) goodwill. We determine the useful lives of our identifiable intangible assets after considering the specific facts and circumstances related to each intangible asset. Factors we consider when determining useful lives include the contractual term of any agreement related to the asset, the historical performance of the asset, our long-term strategy for using the asset, any laws or regulations which could impact the useful life of the asset and other economic factors, including competition and specific market conditions. Intangible assets that are deemed to have definite lives are amortized, primarily on a straight-line basis, over their useful lives to their estimated residual values, generally five years. In process research and development (“IPR&D”) has an indefinite life and is not amortized until completion and development of the project, at which time the IPR&D becomes an amortizable asset. If the related project is not completed in a timely manner or the project is terminated or abandoned, the Company may have an impairment related to the IPR&D, calculated as the excess of the asset’s carrying value over its fair value. This method of amortization approximates the expected future cash flow generated from their use. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, there were no impairments.
Use of Estimates – The Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements requires us to make significant estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. We evaluate our estimates, including those related to contingencies, on an ongoing basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. Significant estimates include the valuation of intangible assets, the amortization lives of intangible assets, valuation of contingent consideration, inputs for valuing derivative financial instruments, inputs for valuing warrants, inputs for valuing notes payable beneficial conversion features and stock-based compensation, valuation of inventory, classification of current and non-current inventory amounts, the allowance for doubtful accounts and determining whether potential losses from legal actions brought against the Company are probable and estimable.
Reportable Segments – The Company has two business segments; consumer products and specialty pharmaceuticals. Our consumer products segment develops, manufactures and markets products based on plant-based CBD, including under the name PlusCBD™ in a variety of market sectors including nutraceutical, beauty care, specialty foods and beverages. Our specialty pharmaceutical segment is developing drug candidates which use synthetic CBD as a primary active ingredient. The specialty pharmaceuticals segment began development activities during the second quarter of 2016.
Cash and Cash Equivalents – For purposes of the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows, the Company considers amounts held by financial institutions and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash and cash equivalents. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company had no cash equivalents.
Restricted Cash – The Company’s current and past arrangements with its credit card processors require that its credit card processors withhold a cash reserve balance from the Company’s credit card receipt transactions for a period of time not to exceed 270 days, for which the credit card processors will refund the Company the entire amounts withheld at its sole discretion. The Company had $738,356 and $778,579 in restricted cash withheld by former credit card processors as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. The following table provides a reconciliation of cash and restricted cash reported within the condensed consolidated balance sheets to the total of the same amounts shown in the statement of cash flows:
On October 22, 2018, the Company received un-restricted control of $450,000 of restricted cash held at September 30, 2018 in connection with the settlement of a complaint filed by the Company against a former credit card processor of the Company (Note 11). The Company recognized bad debt expense of $40,223 in connection with this settlement during the three months ended September 30, 2018.
Concentrations of Credit Risk – As of September 30, 2018, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) provided insurance coverage of up to $250,000 per depositor per bank. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and does not believe that the Company is exposed to significant risks from excess deposits. The Company’s cash balance in excess of FDIC limits totaled $10,027,090 as of September 30, 2018.
There was no concentration of accounts receivable, revenue and purchases as of, and for the period and year ended September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017.
Accounts Receivable – Generally, the Company requires payment prior to shipment. However, in certain circumstances, the Company extends credit to companies located throughout the U.S. Accounts receivable consists of trade accounts arising in the normal course of business. Accounts for which no payments have been received after 30 days are considered delinquent and customary collection efforts are initiated. Accounts receivable are carried at original invoice amount less a reserve made for doubtful receivables based on a review of all outstanding amounts on a quarterly basis.
Management has determined the allowance for doubtful accounts by regularly evaluating individual customer receivables and considering a customer’s financial condition and credit history, and current economic conditions. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company maintained an allowance for doubtful accounts related to accounts receivable in the amount of $200,000.
Revenue Recognition - Our revenue is generated from the sale of products consisting primarily of nutritional supplements and beauty products. We recognize revenue when control of our products is transferred to our customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive from our customers in exchange for those products. This process involves identifying the contract with a customer, determining the performance obligations in the contract, determining the contract price, allocating the contract price to the distinct performance obligations in the contract, and recognizing revenue when the performance obligations have been satisfied. We consider a performance obligation satisfied once we have transferred control of a product to the customer or distributor, meaning the customer has the ability to use and obtain the benefit of the product. We recognize revenue for satisfied performance obligations only when we determine there are no uncertainties regarding payment terms or transfer of control. Revenue from product sales is generally recognized upon shipment to the end customer, which is when control of the product is deemed to be transferred. Payment or invoicing typically occurs upon shipment and the term between invoicing and when payment is due is not significant. Revenue is recorded net of discounts and promotions.
Sales Tax – The Company is responsible for collecting tax on sales made directly to end customers without a valid sales tax exemption certificate, and remitting these taxes to applicable jurisdictions. These taxes are assessed based on the location of the end customer and the laws of the jurisdiction in which they reside. Such taxes are accounted for on a net basis, and not included in revenues.
Shipping and Handling – Shipping and handling expenses are recorded in cost of goods sold and totaled $490,881 and $265,685 for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 totaled $1,297,844 and $589,687, respectively.
Returns – Finished Products – Within ten (10) days of a customer’s receipt of the Company’s finished products, the customer may return (i) finished products that do not conform to the Company’s product specifications or, (ii) finished products which are defective, provided that notice of condition is given within five (5) days of the customer’s receipt of the finished products. The failure to comply with the foregoing time requirements shall be deemed a waiver of customer’s claim for incorrect or defective shipments. In the event of the existence of one or more material defects in any finished product upon delivery to the customer, the Company shall, at its sole option and cost, either (a) take such measures as are required to cure the defect(s) designated in the customer’s notice, or (b) replace such defective finished product(s). The Company may, at its sole option, require the return or destruction of the defective finished products. The customer shall afford the Company the opportunity to verify that such defects existed prior to shipment and were not, for purposes of example and not limitation, the result of improper transport, handling, storage, product rotation or misuse by the customer.
Bulk Oil Products – Sales of bulk oil products are final and the Company does not accept returns under any circumstances.
There was no allowance for customer returns as of September 30, 2018 or December 31, 2017 due to insignificant return amounts experienced during the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and the year ended December 31, 2017.
Compensation and Benefits – The Company records compensation and benefits expense for all cash and deferred compensation, benefits, and related taxes as earned by its employees. Compensation and benefits expense also includes compensation earned by temporary employees and contractors who perform similar services to those performed by the Company’s employees, primarily information technology and project management activities.
Stock-Based Compensation – Certain employees, officers, directors, and consultants of the Company participate in various long-term incentive plans that provide for granting stock options, restricted stock awards, restricted stock units, stock bonus awards and performance-based awards. Stock options generally vest in equal increments over a two- to four-year period and expire on the tenth anniversary following the date of grant. Performance-based stock options vest once the applicable performance condition is satisfied. Restricted stock awards generally vest 100% at the grant date.
The Company recognizes stock-based compensation for equity awards granted to employees, officers, directors, consultants and former directors as compensation and benefits expense in the consolidated statements of operations. The fair value of stock options is estimated using a Black-Scholes valuation model on the date of grant. The fair value of restricted stock awards is equal to the closing price of the Company’s stock on the date of grant. Stock-based compensation is recognized over the requisite service period of the individual awards, which generally equals the vesting period. For performance-based stock options, compensation is recognized once the applicable performance condition is satisfied. Forfeited stock options are accounted for as they occur.
Inventory – Inventory is stated at lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost being determined on an average cost basis. As of September 30, 2018, the Company had $312,626 of inventory in Germany and The Netherlands.
Property & Equipment – Equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Cost represents the purchase price of the asset and other costs incurred to bring the asset into its existing use. Depreciation is provided on a straight-line basis over the assets’ estimated useful lives. Tenant improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the remaining life of the related lease. Maintenance or repairs are charged to expense as incurred. Upon sale or disposition, the historically-recorded asset cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and the net amount less proceeds from disposal is charged or credited to other income (expense).
Property and equipment, net, as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 were as follows:
Depreciation expense for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 was $121,911 and $30,897, respectively, and for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 was $349,121 and $117,744, respectively.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments – In accordance with ASC Topic 825, Financial Instruments, the Company calculates the fair value of its assets and liabilities which qualify as financial instruments and includes this additional information in the notes to its financial statements when the fair value is different than the carrying value of those financial instruments. The estimated fair value of the Company’s current assets and current liabilities approximates their carrying amount due to their readily available nature and short maturity.
Long-Lived Assets – In accordance with ASC Topic 360, Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets, the Company reviews property and equipment for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of property and equipment is measured by comparing its carrying value to the undiscounted projected future cash flows that the asset(s) are expected to generate. If the carrying amount of an asset is not recoverable, we recognize an impairment loss based on the excess of the carrying amount of the long-lived asset over its respective fair value, which is generally determined as the present value of estimated future cash flows or at the appraised value. The impairment analysis is based on significant assumptions of future results made by management, including revenue and cash flow projections. Circumstances that may lead to impairment of property and equipment include a significant decrease in the market price of a long-lived asset, a significant adverse change in the extent or manner in which a long-lived asset is being used or in its physical condition and a significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate that could affect the value of a long-lived asset including an adverse action or assessment by a regulator.
Debt Issuance Costs – Debt issuance costs, when incurred, are capitalized as a discount to the related debt and are amortized to interest expense using the interest method over the expected terms of the related debt agreements.
Earnings (net loss) per Share – The Company calculates earnings or loss per share (“EPS”) in accordance with ASC Topic 260, Earnings per Share, which requires the computation and disclosure of two EPS amounts, basic and diluted. Basic EPS is computed based on the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS is computed based on the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding plus all potentially dilutive shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Potentially dilutive common shares from equity awards are determined using the average share price for each period under the treasury stock method. The Company had 19,562,475 stock options and 79,891 warrants outstanding that were potentially dilutive as of September 30, 2018. In addition, the Company may be required to issue 10,750,000 additional shares of common stock related to certain performance-based stock options outstanding.
Research and Development Expense – Research and development costs are charged to expense as incurred and include, but are not limited to, employee salaries and benefits, cost of inventory used in product development, consulting service fees, the cost of renting and maintaining our laboratory facility and depreciation of laboratory equipment. Research and development expense for the consumer products segment was $170,466 and $76,520 for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 was $362,933 and $181,509, respectively. Research and development expense for the specialty pharmaceutical segment was $359,096 and $102,818 for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 was $762,337 and $392,192, respectively.
Advertising – The Company supports its products with advertising to build brand awareness of the Company’s various products in addition to other marketing programs executed by the Company’s marketing team. The Company believes the continual investment in advertising is critical to the development and sale of its PlusCBD™ brand products. Advertising costs of $231,715 and $152,687 were expensed as incurred during the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 were $634,274 and $261,462, respectively.
Income Taxes – Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which the related temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized when the rate change is enacted. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that will more likely than not be realized. In accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, the Company recognizes the effect of uncertain income tax positions only if the positions are more likely than not of being sustained in an audit, based on the technical merits of the position. Recognized uncertain income tax positions are measured at the largest amount that is greater than 50% likely of being realized. Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which those changes in judgment occur. The Company recognizes both interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions as part of the income tax provision. As of September 30, 2018, and December 31, 2017, the Company did not have a liability for unrecognized tax uncertainties. The Company is subject to routine audits by taxing jurisdictions. Management believes the Company is no longer subject to tax examinations for the years prior to 2014.
Recently Issued and Newly Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) (“ASU 2014-09”), as amended by ASU 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), ASU 2016-08, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), ASU 2016-10, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), ASU 2016-12, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) and ASU 2016-20, Technical Corrections and Improvements to Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which completes the joint effort by the FASB and the International Accounting Standards Board to improve financial reporting by creating common revenue recognition guidance for GAAP and the International Financial Reporting Standards. ASU 2014-09 became effective for the Company beginning on January 1, 2018. The Company implemented ASU 2014-09 for the interim and annual reporting periods of 2018, which resulted in no changes to how we recognize revenue.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11, Inventory: Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory (“ASU 2015-11”), which requires inventory measured using any method other than last-in, first out or the retail inventory method to be subsequently measured at the lower of cost or net realizable value, rather than at the lower of cost or market. ASU 2015-11 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016 and for interim periods within such annual periods. Early application is permitted. The Company implemented ASU 2015-11 during the annual reporting period of 2017.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (“ASU 2016-02”), which, for operating leases, requires a lessee to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability, initially measured at the present value of the lease payments, in its balance sheet. ASU 2016-02 also requires a lessee to recognize a single lease cost, calculated so that the cost of the lease is allocated over the lease term, on a generally straight-line basis. ASU 2016-02 is effective for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is evaluating the potential impact of ASU 2016-02 on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (“ASU 2016-09”), which involves multiple aspects of the accounting for share-based transactions, including income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-09 is effective for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The Company implemented ASU 2016-09 during the annual reporting period of 2017.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (A Consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force) (“ASU 2016-15”), which provides amendments to specific statement of cash flows classification issues. ASU 2016-15 is effective for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company implemented ASU 2016-15 for the interim and annual reporting periods of 2018.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business (“ASU 2017-01”), which revises the definition of a business. ASU 2017-01 requires that for an acquisition to be considered a business, the business would have to include an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create outputs. ASU 2017-01 also narrows the definition of the term “outputs,” which are now considered the result of inputs and substantive processes that provide goods and services to customers, other revenue, or investment income, such as dividends and interest. ASU 2017-01 is effective for public companies for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted ASU 2017-01 for the interim and annual reporting periods of 2018.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (“ASU 2017-04”), which eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Instead, an entity should perform its annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity should then recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value; however, the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. Additionally, an entity should consider income tax effects from any tax deductible goodwill on the carrying amount of the reporting unit when measuring the goodwill impairment loss, if applicable. ASU 2017-04 requires the entity to apply these amendments on a prospective basis for which it is required to disclose the nature of and reason for the change in accounting upon transition. This disclosure shall be provided in the first annual period and in the interim period within the first annual period when the entity initially adopts the amendments. The Company plans to adopt these amendments for its annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of ASU 2017-04 on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvement to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2018-07”), which is intended to reduce cost and complexity and to improve financial reporting for share-based payments to nonemployees. Under ASU 2018-07, most of the guidance on share-based payments to nonemployees would be aligned with the requirements for share-based payments granted to employees. ASU 2018-07 is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of ASU 2018-07 on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Other recent accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB (including its Emerging Issues Task Force), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the SEC did not, or are not believed by management to have, a material impact on the Company’s present or future financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef