Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)


12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation Basis of Presentation - The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP"). The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of CV Sciences, Inc., the accounts of its wholly-owned subsidiaries of Plus CBD, LLC and CANNAVEST Acquisition, LLC, and the accounts of a 70% interest in CannaVest Europe, GmbH. On January 20, 2017, the Company filed for dissolution of CannaVest Europe, GmbH, with the District Court, Dusseldorf Germany, effective December 31, 2017. CANNAVEST Acquisition, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company formed in connection with the CanX Acquisition, was dissolved in 2018, with administrative approval in Florida carrying over into January 2019 before final resolution. On August 7, 2019, the Company filed for dissolution of Plus CBD, LLC (formerly, “Global Hemp Source, LLC”) with the Secretary of State of California. As a result, the Company no longer owns interests in any subsidiaries as of December 31, 2020. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates Use of Estimates – The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from these estimates. Significant estimates include the valuation of intangible assets, inputs for valuing equity awards, and assumptions related to revenue recognition.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Concentrations of Credit Risk – As of December 31, 2020, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) provided insurance coverage of up to $0.3 million per depositor per bank. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and does not believe that the Company is exposed to significant risks from excess deposits. The Company’s cash balance in excess of FDIC limits totaled $3.3 million as of December 31, 2020.
The majority of the Company's raw materials purchases for the year ended December 31, 2019 were sourced from one supplier in Europe. During the year ended December 31, 2020 the Company added one additional domestic supplier. There was no concentration of accounts receivable or revenue as of and for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair Value Measurements – Fair value is defined as the price that would be received from the sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The carrying values of accounts receivable, other current assets, accounts payable, and certain accrued expenses as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, approximate their fair value due to the short-term nature of these items. The Company's notes payable balance also approximates fair value as of December 31, 2020, as the interest rate on the notes payable approximates the rates available to the Company as of this date. The accounting guidance establishes a three-level hierarchy for disclosure that is based on the extent and level of judgment used to estimate the fair value of assets and liabilities.

Level 1 - uses unadjusted quoted prices that are available in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. The Company's Level 1 assets are comprised of $2.4 million and $4.0 million in money market funds which are classified as cash equivalents as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. In addition, the Company's restricted cash of $0.5 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 is comprised of certificates of deposits. The carrying value of the cash
equivalents and restricted cash equals the fair value as of December 31, 2020 and 2019. The Company does not have any liabilities that are valued using inputs identified under a Level 1 hierarchy as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.

Level 2 - uses inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are either directly or indirectly observable through correlation with market data. These include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active; and inputs to valuation models or other pricing methodologies that do not require significant judgment because the inputs used in the model, such as interest rates and volatility, can be corroborated by readily observable market data. The Company did not have any assets or liabilities that are valued using inputs identified under a Level 2 hierarchy as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.

Level 3 - uses one or more significant inputs that are unobservable and supported by little or no market activity, and that reflect the use of significant management judgment. Level 3 assets and liabilities include those whose fair value measurements are determined using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies or similar valuation techniques, and significant management judgment or estimation. The Company did not have any assets or liabilities that are valued using inputs identified under a Level 3 hierarchy as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Cash and Cash Equivalents Cash and Cash Equivalents – For purposes of the consolidated statements of cash flows, the Company considers amounts held by financial institutions and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash and cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had cash of $1.6 million and cash equivalents of $2.4 million. As of December 31, 2019, the Company had cash of $5.1 million and cash equivalents of $4.0 million.
Restricted Cash Restricted Cash – The Company’s restricted cash as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 consists of certificates of deposits related to the Company's corporate credit card program.
Accounts Receivable Accounts Receivable – Generally, the Company requires payment prior to shipment. However, in certain circumstances, the Company extends credit to companies located throughout the U.S. Accounts receivable consists of trade accounts arising in the normal course of business. Accounts for which no payments have been received after 30 days are considered delinquent and customary collection efforts are initiated. Accounts receivable are carried at original invoice amount less a reserve made for doubtful receivables based on a review of all outstanding amounts on a quarterly basis.Management has determined the allowance for doubtful accounts by regularly evaluating individual customer receivables and considering a customer’s financial condition and credit history, and current economic conditions.
Inventory – Inventory is stated at lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost being determined on an average cost basis. Cost includes costs directly related to manufacturing and distribution of the products. Primary costs include raw materials, packaging, manufacturing overhead, shipping and depreciation of manufacturing equipment and production facilities. Manufacturing overhead includes payroll, employee benefits, utilities, maintenance and property taxes. Total shipping and handling costs were $1.7 million and $2.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and are recorded in cost of goods sold.
The Company performs an assessment of inventory obsolescence to measure inventory at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Factors considered in the determination of obsolescence include slow-moving or non-marketable items.

The Company's inventory production process includes the cultivation of botanical raw material. Because of the duration of the cultivation process, a portion of our inventory will not be sold within one year. Starting April 1, 2019, consistent with the practice in other industries that cultivate botanical raw materials, all inventory is classified as a current asset.
Property and Equipment Property & Equipment – Equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Cost represents the purchase price of the asset and other costs incurred to bring the asset into its existing use. Depreciation is provided on a straight-line basis over the assets estimated useful lives. Tenant improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the useful life or the remaining life of the related lease. Maintenance or repairs are charged to expense as incurred. Upon sale or disposition, the historically-recorded asset cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the respective accounts and any related gain or loss is recognized.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets Impairment of Long-Lived Assets – In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 360, Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets, the Company reviews property and equipment for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of property and equipment is measured by comparing its carrying value to the undiscounted projected future cash flows that the assets are expected to generate. If the carrying amount of an asset is not recoverable, the Company recognizes an impairment loss based on the excess of the carrying amount of the long-lived asset over its respective fair value, which is generally determined as the present value of estimated future cash flows or at the appraised value. The impairment analysis is based on significant assumptions of future results made by management, including revenue and cash flow projections. Circumstances that may lead to impairment of property and equipment include a significant decrease in the market price of a long-lived asset, a significant adverse change in the extent or manner in which a long-lived asset is being used or in its physical condition and a significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate that could affect the value of a long-lived asset including an adverse action or assessment by a regulator. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company determined that long-lived assets were not impaired.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets Goodwill and Intangible Assets – The Company evaluates the carrying value of goodwill and intangible assets annually during the fourth quarter in accordance with ASC Topic 350, Intangibles Goodwill and Other and between annual evaluations if events
occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying amount. Such circumstances could include, but are not limited to (1) a significant adverse change in legal factors or in business climate, (2) unanticipated competition, or (3) an adverse action or assessment by a regulator. All of the Company's goodwill and intangible assets are assigned to the Company's specialty pharmaceutical segment.
Goodwill is evaluated for impairment by first performing a qualitative assessment to determine whether a quantitative goodwill test is necessary. If it is determined, based on qualitative factors, that the fair value of the reporting unit may be more likely than not less than carrying amount, or if significant adverse changes in the Company's future financial performance occur that could materially impact fair value, a quantitative goodwill impairment test would be required. Additionally, management can elect to forgo the qualitative assessment and perform the quantitative test. If the qualitative assessment indicates that the quantitative analysis should be performed, or if management elects to bypass a qualitative assessment, the Company then evaluates goodwill for impairment by comparing the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying amount, including goodwill. The quantitative assessment for goodwill requires management to estimate the fair value of the Company's reporting units using either an income or market approach or a combination thereof.
Management makes critical assumptions and estimates in completing impairment assessments of goodwill and other intangible assets. The Company's cash flow projections look several years into the future and include assumptions on variables such as future sales and operating margin growth rates, economic conditions, probability of success, market competition, inflation and discount rates.
During the fourth quarter of 2020, the Company performed its annual goodwill impairment test and determined, after performing a qualitative test of the reporting unit, that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount. Accordingly, there was no indication of impairment and the quantitative impairment test was not performed. The Company did not record any goodwill impairment charges for the years ended December 31, 2020 or 2019.
The Company classifies intangible assets into three categories: (1) intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization; (2) intangible assets with indefinite lives not subject to amortization; and (3) goodwill. The Company determines the useful lives of its identifiable intangible assets after considering the specific facts and circumstances related to each intangible asset. Factors considered when determining useful lives include the contractual term of any agreement related to the asset, the historical performance of the asset, the Company's long-term strategy for using the asset, any laws or regulations which could impact the useful life of the asset and other economic factors, including competition and specific market conditions. Intangible assets that are deemed to have definite lives are amortized, primarily on a straight-line basis, over their useful lives to their estimated residual values, generally five years. In-process research & development ("IPR&D") has an indefinite life and is not amortized until completion and development of the project, at which time the IPR&D becomes an amortizable asset. Until such time as the projects are either completed or abandoned, the Company test those assets for impairment at least annually at year end, or more frequently at interim periods, by evaluating qualitative factors which could be indicative of impairment. Qualitative factors being considered include, but are not limited to, macro-economic conditions, progress on drug development activities, and overall financial performance. If impairment indicators are present as a result of the Company's qualitative assessment, the Company will test those assets for impairment by comparing the fair value of the assets to their carrying value. Quantitative factors being considered include, but are not limited to, the current project status, forecasted changes in the timing or amounts required to complete the project, forecasted changes in timing or changes in the future cash flows to be generated by the completed products, a probability of success of the ultimate project and changes to other market-based assumptions, such as discount rates. Upon completion or abandonment, the value of the IPR&D assets will be amortized to expense over the anticipated useful life of the developed products, if completed, or charged to expense when abandoned if no alternative future use exists.
Revenue Recognition Revenue Recognition – The majority of the Company's revenue contracts represent a single performance obligation related to the fulfillment of customer orders for the purchase of its products. Net sales reflect the transaction prices for these contracts based on the Company's selling list price, which is then reduced by estimated costs for trade promotional programs, consumer incentives, and allowances and discounts used to incentivize sales growth and build brand awareness. The Company recognizes revenue at the point in time that control of the ordered product is transferred to the customer, which is typically upon shipment to the customer or other customer-designated delivery point. The Company accrues for estimated sales returns by customers based on historical sales return results. The computation of the sales return and discount allowances require that management makes certain estimates and assumptions that effect the timing and amounts of revenue and liabilities recorded. Shipping and handling fees charged to customers are included in product sales and totaled $0.2 million and $0.3 million for the years ended December 31,
2020 and 2019, respectively. Taxes collected from customers that are remitted to governmental agencies are accounted for on a net basis and not included as revenue.
The following represents product sales by channel for food, drug and mass ("FDM"), natural product and other, and e-commerce for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:
For the years ended December 31,
2020 2019
(in thousands) (in thousands)
Amount % of product sales, net Amount % of prodct sales, net
Retail - FDM $ 1,651  6.8  % $ 2,229  4.2  %
Retail - Natural products and other 15,073  61.7  % 41,534  77.3  %
E-Comm 7,705  31.5  % 9,933  18.5  %
Product sales, net $ 24,429  100.0  % $ 53,696  100.0  %
Compensation and Benefits Compensation and Benefits – The Company records compensation and benefits expense for all cash and deferred compensation, benefits, and related taxes as earned by its employees. Compensation and benefits expense also includes compensation earned by temporary employees and contractors who perform similar services to those performed by the Company’s employees, primarily information technology and project management activities. The Company maintains a defined contribution 401(k) plan available to eligible employees. Employee contributions are voluntary and are determined on an individual basis, limited to the maximum amount allowable under federal tax regulations. The Company, at its discretion, may make certain matching contributions to the 401(k) plan.
Research & Development Expense Research and Development Expense – Research and development costs are charged to expense as incurred and include, but are not limited to, employee salaries and benefits, cost of inventory used in product development, consulting service fees, the cost of renting and maintaining our laboratory facility and depreciation of laboratory equipment.
Advertising Advertising – The Company supports its products with advertising to build brand awareness of the Company’s various products in addition to other marketing programs executed by the Company’s marketing team. The Company believes the continual investment in advertising is critical to the development and sale of its products.
Stock Based Compensation
Stock-Based Compensation – Certain employees, officers, directors, and consultants of the Company participate in various long-term incentive plans that provide for granting stock options, restricted stock awards, restricted stock units, stock bonus awards and performance-based awards. Stock options generally vest in equal increments over a two- to four-year period and expire on the tenth anniversary following the date of grant. Performance-based stock options vest once the applicable performance condition is satisfied.
The Company recognizes stock-based compensation for equity awards granted to employees, officers and directors as compensation and benefits expense in the consolidated statements of operations. The fair value of stock options is estimated using a Black-Scholes valuation model on the date of grant. The fair value of restricted stock awards is equal to the closing price of the Company’s stock on the date of grant. Stock-based compensation is recognized over the requisite service period of the individual awards, which generally equals the vesting period. For performance-based stock options, compensation is recognized once the applicable performance condition is satisfied.
Income Taxes Income Taxes – Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which the related temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized when the rate change is enacted. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that will more likely than not be realized. In accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, the Company recognizes the effect of uncertain income tax positions only if the positions are more likely than not of being sustained in an audit, based on the technical merits of the position. Recognized uncertain income tax positions are measured at the largest amount that is greater than 50% likely of being realized. Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which those changes in judgment occur. The Company recognizes both interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions as part of the income tax provision. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019 the Company did not have a liability for unrecognized tax uncertainties. The Company is subject to routine audits by taxing jurisdictions. Management believes the Company is no longer subject to tax examinations for the years prior to 2013.
Comprehensive Income Comprehensive Loss – Comprehensive loss is defined as a change in equity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources. There have been no items qualifying as other comprehensive loss and, therefore, the Company's comprehensive loss was the same as its reported net loss for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Recently Issued and Newly Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted

In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments and subsequent amendments to the initial guidance: ASU 2018-19, ASU 2019-04 and ASU 2019-05 (collectively, “Topic 326”). Topic 326 requires measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held. Topic 326 was to be effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-10, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), and Leases (Topic 842) Effective Dates, which deferred the effective dates for the Company, as a smaller reporting company, until fiscal year 2023. The Company currently plans to adopt the guidance at the beginning of fiscal 2023. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of Topic 326 on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes ("ASU 2019-12"), which simplifies the accounting for income taxes, eliminates certain exceptions within ASC 740, Income Taxes, and clarifies certain aspects of the current guidance to promote consistency among reporting entities. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. Most amendments within the standard are required to be applied on a prospective basis, while certain amendments must be applied on a retrospective or modified retrospective basis. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of ASU 2019-12 on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

Recently Adopted Accounting Standards

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (“ASU 2017-04”), which eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Instead, an entity should perform its annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity should then recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value; however, the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. Additionally, an entity should consider income tax effects from any tax deductible goodwill on the carrying amount of the reporting unit when measuring the goodwill impairment loss, if applicable. ASU 2017-04 requires the entity to apply these amendments on a prospective basis for which it is required to disclose the nature of and reason for the change in accounting upon transition. This disclosure shall be provided in the first annual period and in the interim period within the first annual period when the entity initially adopts the amendments. This ASU became effective for the Company on January 1, 2020. Adoption of ASU 2017-04 did not have an immediate impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and only has the potential to impact the amount of any goodwill impairment recorded after the adoption of the ASU.