SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation - The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP"). The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of CV Sciences, Inc., the accounts of its wholly-owned subsidiaries of Plus CBD, LLC and CANNAVEST Acquisition, LLC, and the accounts of a 70% interest in CannaVest Europe, GmbH. On January 20, 2017, the Company filed for dissolution of CannaVest Europe, GmbH, with the District Court, Dusseldorf Germany, effective December 31, 2016. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates – The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from these estimates. Significant estimates include the valuation of intangible assets, the amortization lives of intangible assets, valuation of contingent consideration, inputs for valuing derivative financial instruments, inputs for valuing equity awards and warrants, inputs for valuing notes payable beneficial conversion features, valuation of inventory, classification of current and non-current inventory amounts, assumptions related to revenue recognition and the allowance for doubtful accounts.
Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified for consistency with the current year presentation. These reclassifications had no impact on net sales, operating income (loss), net income (loss) or net income (loss) per share.
Concentrations of Credit Risk – As of December 31, 2018, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) provided insurance coverage of up to $250 per depositor per bank. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and does not believe that the Company is exposed to significant risks from excess deposits. The Company’s cash balance in excess of FDIC limits totaled $12,721 as of December 31, 2018.
There was no concentration of accounts receivable, revenue and inventory purchases as of and for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments – In accordance with ASC Topic 825, Financial Instruments, the Company calculates the fair value of its assets and liabilities which qualify as financial instruments and includes this additional information in the notes to its financial statements when the fair value is different than the carrying value of those financial instruments. The estimated fair value of the Company’s current assets and current liabilities approximates their carrying amount due to their readily available nature and short maturity.
Cash and Cash Equivalents – For purposes of the consolidated statements of cash flows, the Company considers amounts held by financial institutions and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash and cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company had no cash equivalents.
Restricted Cash – The Company’s current arrangement with its credit card processor provides the credit card processor with the right to withhold a cash reserve balance from the Company’s credit card receipt transactions for a period of time not to exceed 270 days, for which the credit card processor will refund the Company the entire amounts withheld at their sole discretion. During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company received unrestricted control of $450 of restricted cash in connection with the settlement of a complaint filed by the Company against a former credit card processor (Note 12). The Company had restricted cash withheld by former credit card processors of $251 and $779 as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash and restricted cash reported within the consolidated balance sheets to the total of the same amounts shown in the statement of cash flows as of December 31, 2018 and 2017:
Accounts Receivable – Generally, the Company requires payment prior to shipment. However, in certain circumstances, the Company extends credit to companies located throughout the U.S. Accounts receivable consists of trade accounts arising in the normal course of business. Accounts for which no payments have been received after 30 days are considered delinquent and customary collection efforts are initiated. Accounts receivable are carried at original invoice amount less a reserve made for doubtful receivables based on a review of all outstanding amounts on a quarterly basis.
Management has determined the allowance for doubtful accounts by regularly evaluating individual customer receivables and considering a customer’s financial condition and credit history, and current economic conditions. As of each December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company maintained an allowance for doubtful accounts related to accounts receivable in the amount of $200.
Inventory – Inventory is stated at lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost being determined on an average cost basis. Cost includes costs directly related to manufacturing and distribution of the products. Primary costs include raw materials, packaging, manufacturing overhead, shipping and depreciation of manufacturing equipment and production facilities. Manufacturing overhead includes payroll, employee benefits, utilities, maintenance and property taxes. Total shipping and handling costs were $1,958 and $854 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and are recorded in cost of goods sold.
The Company performs an assessment of inventory obsolescence to measure inventory at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Factors considered in the determination of obsolescence include slow-moving or non-marketable items.
The Company classifies a portion of its raw material inventory which will not be sold within one year to non-current.
Property & Equipment – Equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Cost represents the purchase price of the asset and other costs incurred to bring the asset into its existing use. Depreciation is provided on a straight-line basis over the assets estimated useful lives. Tenant improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the useful life or the remaining life of the related lease. Maintenance or repairs are charged to expense as incurred. Upon sale or disposition, the historically-recorded asset cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the respective accounts and any related gain or loss is recognized.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets – In accordance with ASC Topic 360, Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets, the Company reviews property and equipment for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of property and equipment is measured by comparing its carrying value to the undiscounted projected future cash flows that the asset(s) are expected to generate. If the carrying amount of an asset is not recoverable, the Company recognizes an impairment loss based on the excess of the carrying amount of the long-lived asset over its respective fair value, which is generally determined as the present value of estimated future cash flows or at the appraised value. The impairment analysis is based on significant assumptions of future results made by management, including revenue and cash flow projections. Circumstances that may lead to impairment of property and equipment include a significant decrease in the market price of a long-lived asset, a significant adverse change in the extent or manner in which a long-lived asset is being used or in its physical condition and a significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate that could affect the value of a long-lived asset including an adverse action or assessment by a regulator. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company determined that long-lived assets were not impaired.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets – The Company evaluates the carrying value of goodwill and intangible assets annually during the fourth quarter in accordance with ASC Topic 350, Intangibles Goodwill and Other and between annual evaluations if events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying amount. Such circumstances could include, but are not limited to (1) a significant adverse change in legal factors or in business climate, (2) unanticipated competition, or (3) an adverse action or assessment by a regulator. When evaluating whether goodwill is impaired, the Company compares the fair value of the reporting unit to which the goodwill is assigned to the reporting unit’s carrying amount, including goodwill. The fair value of the reporting unit is estimated using a combination of the income, or discounted cash flows, approach and the market approach, which utilizes comparable companies’ data. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, then the amount of the impairment loss must be measured. The impairment loss would be calculated by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill to its carrying amount. In calculating the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill, the fair value of the reporting unit is allocated to all of the other assets and liabilities of that unit based on their fair values. The excess of the fair value of a reporting unit over the amount assigned to its other assets and liabilities is the implied fair value of goodwill.
Management makes critical assumptions and estimates in completing impairment assessments of goodwill and other intangible assets. The Company's cash flow projections look several years into the future and include assumptions on variables such as future sales and operating margin growth rates, economic conditions, market competition, inflation and discount rates.
The Company classifies intangible assets into three categories: (1) intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization; (2) intangible assets with indefinite lives not subject to amortization; and (3) goodwill. The Company determines the useful lives of its identifiable intangible assets after considering the specific facts and circumstances related to each intangible asset. Factors considered when determining useful lives include the contractual term of any agreement related to the asset, the historical performance of the asset, the Company's long-term strategy for using the asset, any laws or regulations which could impact the useful life of the asset and other economic factors, including competition and specific market conditions. Intangible assets that are deemed to have definite lives are amortized, primarily on a straight-line basis, over their useful lives to their estimated residual values, generally five years. In-process research & development (IPR&D) has an indefinite life and is not amortized until completion and development of the project, at which time the IPR&D becomes an amortizable asset. If the related project is not completed in a timely manner or the project is terminated or abandoned, the Company may have an impairment related to the IPR&D, calculated as the excess of the asset’s carrying value over its fair value. This method of amortization approximates the expected future cash flow generated from their use.
The Company completed its annual impairment assessment during the fourth quarter of 2018 and 2017. No impairments were noted during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Debt Issuance Costs – Debt issuance costs have been recorded as a discount to convertible and long-term notes payable and are being amortized to interest expense using the interest method over the expected terms of the related debt agreement.
Revenue Recognition – The majority of the Company's revenue contracts represent a single performance obligation related to the fulfillment of customer orders for the purchase of its products, which is primarily related to the Company's Plus CBD™ line of products. Net sales reflect the transaction prices for these contracts based on the Company's selling list price, which is then reduced by estimated costs for trade promotional programs, consumer incentives, and allowances and discounts used to incentivize sales growth and build brand awareness. The Company recognizes revenue at the point in time that control of the ordered product is transferred to the customer, which is typically upon shipment to the customer or other customer-designated delivery point. The Company accrues for estimated sales returns by customers based on historical sales return results. The computation of the sales return and discount allowances require that management makes certain estimates and assumptions that effect the timing and amounts of revenue and liabilities recorded. Shipping and handling fees charged to customers are included in product sales and totaled $396 and $230 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Taxes collected from customers that are remitted to governmental agencies are accounted for on a net basis and not included as revenue.
Compensation and Benefits – The Company records compensation and benefits expense for all cash and deferred compensation, benefits, and related taxes as earned by its employees. Compensation and benefits expense also includes compensation earned by temporary employees and contractors who perform similar services to those performed by the Company’s employees, primarily information technology and project management activities. The Company maintains a defined contribution 401(k) plan available to eligible employees. Employee contributions are voluntary and are determined on an individual basis, limited to the maximum amount allowable under federal tax regulations. The Company, at its discretion, may make certain matching contributions to the 401(k) plan. The Company began matching contributions in January 2018. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company made matching contributions of $83.
Research and Development Expense – Research and development costs are charged to expense as incurred and include, but are not limited to, employee salaries and benefits, cost of inventory used in product development, consulting service fees, the cost of renting and maintaining our laboratory facility and depreciation of laboratory equipment. Research and development expense for the consumer products segment was $1,008 and $251 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Research and development expense for the specialty pharmaceutical segment was $877 and $473 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Advertising – The Company supports its products with advertising to build brand awareness of the Company’s various products in addition to other marketing programs executed by the Company’s marketing team. The Company believes the continual investment in advertising is critical to the development and sale of its PlusCBD™ branded products. Advertising costs of $907 and $380 were expensed as incurred during the years ending December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Operating Leases – The Company leases its facilities under operating leases. For leases that contain rent escalation or rent concession provisions, the Company records the total rent payable during the lease term on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. The Company records the difference between the rent paid and the straight-line rent as deferred rent liability.
Stock-Based Compensation – Certain employees, officers, directors, and consultants of the Company participate in various long-term incentive plans that provide for granting stock options, restricted stock awards, restricted stock units, stock bonus awards and performance-based awards. Stock options generally vest in equal increments over a two- to four-year period and expire on the tenth anniversary following the date of grant. Performance-based stock options vest once the applicable performance condition is satisfied. Restricted stock awards generally vest 100% at the grant date.
The Company recognizes stock-based compensation for equity awards granted to employees, officers and directors as compensation and benefits expense in the consolidated statements of operations. The fair value of stock options is estimated using a Black-Scholes valuation model on the date of grant. The fair value of restricted stock awards is equal to the closing price of the Company’s stock on the date of grant. Stock-based compensation is recognized over the requisite service period of the individual awards, which generally equals the vesting period. For performance-based stock options, compensation is recognized once the applicable performance condition is satisfied. Forfeited stock options are accounted for as they occur.
The Company recognizes stock-based compensation for equity awards granted to consultants as selling, general and administrative expense in the consolidated statements of operations. The fair value of stock options is estimated using a Black-Scholes valuation model on the date of grant and unvested awards are revalued at each reporting period. The fair value of restricted stock awards is equal to the closing price of the Company’s stock on the date of grant multiplied by the number of shares awarded. Stock-based compensation is recognized over the requisite service period of the individual awards, which generally equals the vesting period. Forfeited stock options are accounted for as they occur.
Income Taxes – Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which the related temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized when the rate change is enacted. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that will more likely than not be realized. In accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, the Company recognizes the effect of uncertain income tax positions only if the positions are more likely than not of being sustained in an audit, based on the technical merits of the position. Recognized uncertain income tax positions are measured at the largest amount that is greater than 50% likely of being realized. Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which those changes in judgment occur. The Company recognizes both interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions as part of the income tax provision. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017 the Company did not have a liability for unrecognized tax uncertainties. The Company is subject to routine audits by taxing jurisdictions. Management believes the Company is no longer subject to tax examinations for the years prior to 2013.
Comprehensive Income – Comprehensive income is defined as a change in equity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources. There have been no items qualifying as other comprehensive income and, therefore, the Company's comprehensive income was the same as its reported net income (loss) for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (“ASU 2016-02”), which, for operating leases, requires a lessee to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability, initially measured at the present value of the lease payments, in its balance sheet. ASU 2016-02 also requires a lessee to recognize a single lease cost, calculated so that the cost of the lease is allocated over the lease term, on a generally straight-line basis. ASU 2016-02 became effective for the Company on January 1, 2019, and will be adopted using the modified retrospective method through a cumulative-effect adjustment directly to retained earnings as of that date. The cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings is expected to be immaterial.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (“ASU 2017-04”), which eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Instead, an entity should perform its annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity should then recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value; however, the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. Additionally, an entity should consider income tax effects from any tax deductible goodwill on the carrying amount of the reporting unit when measuring the goodwill impairment loss, if applicable. ASU 2017-04 requires the entity to apply these amendments on a prospective basis for which it is required to disclose the nature of and reason for the change in accounting upon transition. This disclosure shall be provided in the first annual period and in the interim period within the first annual period when the entity initially adopts the amendments. The Company shall adopt these amendments for its annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of ASU 2017-04 on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718), Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting. This ASU is intended to simplify aspects of share-based compensation issued to non-employees by making the guidance consistent with accounting for employee share-based compensation. ASU 2018-07 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods within those annual periods, with early adoption permitted but no earlier than an entity’s adoption date of ASC Topic 606. The new guidance is required to be applied retrospectively with the cumulative effect recognized at the date of initial application. This ASU became effective for the Company on January 1, 2019. Adoption of the new standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. ASU 2018-15 requires a customer in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract to follow the internal-use software guidance in Accounting Standards Codification 350-40 to determine which implementation costs to defer and recognize as an asset. For public business entities, the guidance is effective for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company is evaluating the potential impact of ASU 2018-15 on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Other recent accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB (including its Emerging Issues Task Force), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the SEC did not, or are not believed by management to have a material impact on the Company’s present or future financial statements.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2014-09, as incorporated into Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 606, on a modified retrospective basis. The adoption of ASU 2014-09 did not change the Company's revenue recognition as the majority of its revenues continue to be recognized when the customer takes control of the product. The cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of Retained earnings was immaterial.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11, Inventory: Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory (“ASU 2015-11”), which requires inventory measured using any method other than last-in, first out or the retail inventory method to be subsequently measured at the lower of cost or net realizable value, rather than at the lower of cost or market. ASU 2015-11 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016 and for interim periods within such annual periods. Early application is permitted. The Company implemented ASU 2015-11 during the annual reporting period of 2017.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (“ASU 2016-09”), which involve multiple aspects of the accounting for share-based transactions, including income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-09 is effective for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The Company implemented ASU 2016-09 during the annual reporting period of 2017.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (A Consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force) (“ASU 2016-15”), which provides amendments to specific statement of cash flows classification issues. ASU 2016-15 is effective for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The Company implemented ASU 2016-15 during the annual period of 2018.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business (“ASU 2017-01”), which revises the definition of a business. ASU 2017-1 requires that for an acquisition to be considered a business, the business would have to include an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create outputs. ASU 2017-01 also narrows the definition of the term “outputs,” which are now considered the result of inputs and substantive processes that provide goods and services to customers, other revenue, or investment income, such as dividends and interest. ASU 2017-01 is effective for public companies for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted. The Company implemented ASU 2017-01 during the annual period of 2018.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef